The ancient city of Butrint, a ride in ancient history
Historical Description: How did Butrint and survived through the centuries?
Butrint is the most important archaeological sites in Albania and the most prominent of all the Balkan Peninsula. This center offers to its visitors a whole complex of buildings and archaeological monuments, which testify to the development of a civilization very important that in the period antiques. According to classical mythology that period, Butrint today or Buthroti The former, was founded by Greek koloner the Trojan. Indeed many archaeological objects testify to the existence of this early Neolithic settlement that in the period. After the Neolithic era, territories has been the center of a large Illyrian settlement, the banur from a tribe that was known Epirote Prassaiboi. Since the end of the century. VI p.e.r. were not raised a small town and a fortress. The top of the hill was surrounded by large blocks of hewn stone. Then will happen in the century colonization of Corfu. VI p.e.r. In the IV century p.e.r. the city had a rapid and promenade were built first and a temple. Soon after it became part of the Kingdom of Epirus and governed by a council of all free citizens. After breaking the League of Epirus and invasion became an important Roman city, and saved from destruction suffered by many other cities 70 Epirus. At the time of Julius Caesar and Augustus, Butrint was a naval point and grain barn for Caesar's army. Location citizen continued without interruption throughout his life antiquity and the Middle Ages. After the last Ottoman conquest the city was abandoned and the ruins were covered by soil and vegetation. During the years 1928 to 1941, will be carried out very important archaeological excavations directed by prominent Italian archaeologist Louis Ugolini.
The final chapter in the long history of Butrint came with the construction of the castle square in the gorge of Vivarit by Ali Pasha in 1807, to be protected from attacks coming from Corfu French and passed into the hands of the Ottomans until the period of independence.
Ugolini, who died excavated Italian Butrint.
Butrint was ignored until 1920, when Italian mission headed by Luigi Ugolini arrived in Albania. We chose 1924 Ugolini top of Illyrian hill, Phoinike, 20 miles north of Butrint, on his first campaign. But it was less promising Ugolini I expected, so in 1928, with the hope of discovering archaeological Aeneas time, he began work at Butrint. Butrint was at that time a small hill in a landscape
desert. Within three months Ugolini had large stretches of Greek ranges walls and gates around the city as large and very fine. However, the largest excavation site was on the eastern side of the hill, where he discovered the theater. Theatre of the IV century, the seat spectators and well preserved scene, constitute a sensation especially when followed by the discovery of statues, Gods of Butrint and a head of Apollo. Working rapidly, Ugolini excavated and revealed the Temple's Asclepulus after theater, a Roman bath pad in front of him, a part of the earlier building, which had a mosaic floor of the V century and many other monuments . Ugolini worked with passion until he died in 1936 from malaria.
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                             Butrint, open exhibition of historical-cultural values
The city of Butrint is large and complex, with ruins from different periods. For those who are not specialists archaeologist or student, the easiest way to their first visit is to revolve within the perimeter. To walk around the walls and see how their eyes were held town and castle as a fortified island and then proceed to the center to see the refinement of ancient buildings.
The area may enter through a gate, which applies a very small fee. Taking to the right and follow the narrow alleys arrives ruins belonging to the Roman bath and a Venetian tower and then another section of walls that date back to the fourth century, the year of Christ. After almost 400 meters to the other, to show the remains of a krishterer cult center and then a swimming pool in the shape of a cross that may have been part of the medieval church.
The right of the entrance you see a very nice view of the canal expansion then leads to the lake. Later still another section, too tall external walls, even those belonging subsequent antiquity, while a walk through the dense forest of the island qn is really nice too. On the left, while approaching the end of this road, seen walls of a medieval basilica near the point where the walls join exterior fortifications tie. Down waters were several thermal baths, which were also known, the nymph baths. We write walls is a Greek legend that was about the importance of welfare. It took final shape in the new century I-BC, when the roof was covered with spherical and was decorated with paintings, in one of which there are two peacocks and a parrot. Entry else nearby has a vaulted archway of the stony showing a lion has torn a.
The lake area has a rich variety of birds. This area was famous for hunting, especially for him to snipe, and in this context Butrint is mentioned in the memoirs of British athletes in the nineteenth century. Corfu hunters went on hunting trips per day and Butrint.
Among the trees and shrubs found base of the Acropolis, the old fortification walls, which date back to the sixth century BC. The end of the acropolis is open, with a Christian church in the center surrounded by trees. This is the oldest building of Christian Butrint. We design it appears similar to other established churches in Albania found in Elbasan, Foenik and Byllis, with arched roof and mosaic floors. It dates back to the first half of the VI century. In the Middle Ages it was rebuilt, with the exception of a small dome to the east. The far end of the Acropolis, where the Venetians and Turks balls placed in positions of walls, lies outside the walls, in the gardens surrounding the central fortress. Just after passing the Acropolis and go up in the central complex of buildings can rejoice Central Park.
  Theatre of Butrint
We lanes running west side, are the ruins of a large Roman house dating back to the II century AD year. His center was open paved with stones, with 12 stone pillars that stood on a pedestal. Butrint theater had a capacity of 1,500 seats. Consists of living places, scenes and orchestra. There were 19 rows of stone blocks which served as seats and 3-4 in the top row. There are 13 stairs store full of money. To switch between sustainable poverty lines 6 stone staircase to the first two putra decorated with lion. Background behind the scenes composed by a high wall with three arches with ornate marble statue placed there by the time models. Square scene slate was admitted to the Ottoman period. Before the stairs is the orchestra country, has the form of an arch and is paved with limestone rocks to form quadrant. Stage and orchestra was rebuilt in the II century BC. The scene is set above the square Orchestra. The scene consists of two environments: aprons and behind the scenes. In the background are the narrow corridors which served as the entry and movement of the actors. Here are some inscriptions for freeing slaves. It is said that many slaves were freed some of whom were women.
                                               BUTRINTI, Mediterranean microcosm
The ancient city of Butrint, in the south of the country, which dates back to the Bronze Age, around 3400 BC, the city that stands out for objects with special significance, such as theater, the baptistery, the complex of buildings of the medieval period, for years has smart and continues to rouse the interest of archaeologists and tourists numerous domestic and foreign. To visit it today is the same as visiting a city one hundred years ago, no parking places for cars, without tents with souvenirs for visitors, no sound except the sound of birds and crickets song permanently. If you want to forget the romantic thoughts, alone among the ruins of a former grand city, then Butrint is ideal for you. But the inclusion of Butrint and the National Park after the same name, in the World Heritage by UNESCO, without doubt, aroused curiosity among thousands of Western and domestic guests departing to the ancient city. Are many institutions that care as legal party, for the progress of this monument of inestimable value not only for Albania. The following represent the history and development of the ancient city of Butrint in years.
According to Virgil, Butrint was New Troy, which was founded by Aeneas. According to Plutarch, God Pan is dead just Butrint and the moment of his death, the cries became due for the sylph, which inform shepherds throughout Kaonisë for this tragic loss of their protector and forest flowers. In the late 30s of the last century, Italian archeologist Ugolini gojedhenen mention the distant origins of Butrint. Helenus in Epirus had come from Troy, was being prepared to make the sacrifice ritual after landing on the ground. Cow to be sacrificed to the Gods, the hit, but not killed, had escaped from the hands and crossed the sea to swim. Helenus, seeing here a warning of the Gods, he founded a town named Buthrotos. Butrint is situated on a low promontory on the southwestern coast of Albania.
This center turns out to have been inhabited at least since the century. VIII BC. While myths speak of the establishment of Butrint displaced by the Trojans. About the IV century. BC, the settlement was fortified and the city became a center dedicated cult Asklepit. Documented medieval period of turbulence. The city was first included in the wars for power between the Byzantines and then the Normans, anzhuineve, Venetians, and the second to the conflict between Venice and the Ottoman Turks.
At the beginning of the century. Century, it was gradually transformed into a tiny fishing village, around a Venetian fortification, but the contours of magnificent monuments speak for the termination of a previous glow of shared urban center in the Corfu Channel. Together with Butrint Corfu, was bought by the Republic of Venice, Italy anzhuine kings of the South in 1386. Then the active phase of the medieval city was turned into a fortress outpost to major in Corfu. Venice remained the property for more than 400 years and many Venetians built the existing fortifications and a castle triangular, then reconstructed for purposes of protection and control of Channel Vivarit the Pasha of Ioannina, Ali Pasha Tepelenë. With the strengthening of the Ottoman Empire, Butrint was in the front line to Venice. It was captured on a number of occasions, but the scoring is getting his "Suleiman The Magnificent" in 1537.
Theft of statues
In the early 90s, the ancient city of Butrint became the prey of several burglaries. Most vulnerable to looters and traffickers of archaeological values were some head statues in marble and some archaeological funds. Thus, two statues of two Gods, Artemis and Apollo, two rare items value for the Albanian culture, which 11 years ago was sent to Greece by traffickers of works of art, were repatriated in February this year and was placed in environments Butrint archaeological museum, 19 km from the southern city of Saranda. Two works of art looted from archaeological museum of Butrint, was found in Piraeus and their traffickers are prosecuted under Greek law. God statue of Artemis appear feminine in motion. The marble working with material and technical gdhendjeje, according specialists, it belongs paraqytetare Illyrian culture, Hellenistic period, II century BC. Statue of two arms and head are missing. Artemis was discovered in 1958, in the Finiqi hill and was saved in 1997 by the Museum of Butrint. Its height is 1:25 meters. As the seventh of Apollo, of working with marble and technical material gdhendjeje, aired the II century AD. Head is working with them and is located in the Butrint Museum. It was found by the Italian archeologist Ugolini we Nymfeun of Butrint. Its height is 1:38 meters. The history of the robberies and statues from Butrint Finiqi started in 1991 and will be repeated in other size in 1997. Certificates of stolen objects became part of the work of Interpol, who managed to find the location of many of them. In November of 2000, was repatriated by U.S. Livias head of the wife of Emperor Octavian Augustus. While in the summer of 2003 was made possible return from Greece sculpture "Portrait of Germanikut", "Portrait of Herkulianes" and "Portrait girl" that were stolen from the Butrint Museum in 1991. The latter two were found in the National Archaeological Museum exhibits Athens while the first was found in the Archaeological Museum of Ioannina. Butrint museum employees say the equipment already installed in the premises of this museum, have ended any possibility of looting of works of art. According to them, this museum has modern control devices, cameras and alarm system and generator system that guarantees the operation of the signaling preview "non-stop".
Butrint center like many other important archaeological sites in Albania, was declared Monument of Culture, that in 1948 a pact with the First Cultural Monuments adjustment. In 1981, the forested area around Butrint was also declared Monument of Culture under existing laws for the protection of archaeological areas with environmental significance. Internationally, the importance of the ancient city was recognized and confirmed as such in 1992, when he was included in the list of Real World UNESCO, Butrint National Park was established by the Ministry of Culture, including an area of land state of 29 km / sq. The boundaries of this park, stretching the emergence of villages around it, as Ksamili, Vrinë, Shendellia and Xarra. The creation of the National Park became a necessity, for the preservation of the unique location and atmosphere of Butrint, preservation of archaeological data to several sites and monuments discovered in the hearth ancient civilization, as well as an effective management, reflecting the UNESCO's recommendations of 1997.
Within the park there are 10 outstanding archaeological areas related to the history of Butrint. Some of these areas are within the walls of Butrint, it outside the walls, Diapori, rock-castle of Ali Pasha, Kalivoi, Dell St., St. Demetrius, Xarra, Side Channel Vivarit etj.Specialiste of archeology have noted that "Butrint is an extraordinary treasure for Albania "and that" the key is to develop a balanced and tourism harmless ".
Nobody can escape from the glamor beauty and tranquility of this place, where beautiful natural surroundings meet the ancient ruins.
Butrint, the ancient name or Buthrotum, lies in southwestern Albania, 20 km south of the modern port of Saranda. Its position is famously core of the ancient city is situated on a small hill surrounded by the waters of Lake Butrint and Vivarit canal, a narrow road that now connects Corfu water, 4 km west of Butrint. In the north and east swamp land left them high mountains. The island of Corfu close look west.
Riviera is without doubt one of the most beautiful and untouched in all Albania. The Adriatic and Ionian have a striking beauty. Palms and olive trees dominate the landscape by giving a typical Mediterranean charm. Sea panorama, the variety of flora, favored by the mild climate, makes the center of Saranda favorite for holidays and recreation, and an important tourist town. Tourists from Corfu land amid the ferries here. There is a daily bus line from Saranda to Butrint. In 2000 Butrint mese received 30 thousand foreign guests.
The ancient city, is one of the beauties of the Albanian Riviera value and one of the destinations stripes, not only by foreign tourists, but also by the Albanians. History here interlaced with ancient art and surrounded by a Mediterranean charm, occupying an important place in the memories of those who have tasted closely and dreams that we have heard them spoken for.
 Unspoilt beaches are very close, so, after a long journey through tales and legends, the images of ancestors who lived, and having a good rest in these beauty, anyone can take some recreation among the trees nearby, or a little hot sand meters away. And various local hotels, raised in recent years, offering numerous opportunities for vacation days and do in this country still unexplored, pleasant and unforgettable. Italian cuisine combine it with traditional dancing, offering the best of the sea and of this blessed land.
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